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Nike Free 5.0 V4 author Optimization consisted of permuting rows
A combinatorial optimization technique was used to rearrange a matrix of citations among 16,432 neuroscientists in which cited authors were columns, citing authors were rows, and an element was a count of citations of a cited author by a citing author. Optimization consisted of permuting rows and columns to maximize density near the diagonal. A scatterplot-type display of the permuted matrix revealed both global structure and local patterns of communication within neuroscience. The algorithm is described and compared to two other methods of mapping large networks, cluster analysis and correspondence analysis. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803, when challenged with a salt stress (0.5 M), increased its respiratory and cytochrome c oxidase activities. Spontaneous mutants impaired in respiration could be isolated through their incapacity to tolerate salt stress. Mutants from one class, among two classes obtained, were deficient for respiratory capacity and cytochrome c oxidase activity. The latter enzyme exhibited similar kinetic modifications, but no change in the Mr of subunits I and II, in Nike Free 5.0 V4 the complexes present in the Nike Free Run 2.0 cytoplasmic and thylakoid membranes.